.Net Tips – Use LINQ to create pairs of adjacent elements from a collection

Suppose you have an array of numbers, say, [1, 3, 5, 7, 9, …], and you want to pair each element up with its neighbour in the array, e.g. [[1, 3], [3, 5], [5, 7], [7, 9], …].

Sure, you can iterate through the indices of the elements and recursively grab the element at an index and its neighbour:

   1: // an array of odd numbers

   2: var arr = new[] { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 };


   4: // standard imperative way, iterate through the indices and grab

   5: // the elements from the arrays

   6: var arrPairs = new List<int[]>();

   7: for (var i = 0; i < arr.Length - 1; i++)

   8: {

   9:     arrPairs.Add(new[] { arr[i], arr[i+1] });

  10: }

OR, you can use LINQ and the Zip method added in .Net 4 and do this instead:

   1: var arrPairsLinq = arr.Skip(1).Zip(arr, (second, first) => new[] { first, second }).ToArray();

A much more elegant solution, no? ;-)

.Net Tips – Make sure the runtime types match when combining delegates

In C#, it’s possible to combine two delegates, A and B to create a new multicast delegate, C:

image image 

When the multicast delegate is executed, the combined delegates are executed in order as you can see from the example above. But before you can start mix and matching your delegates like a kid in a candy store, there is however, the small matter of having to keep the CLR happy. You see, only delegates of the same type can be combined, but and this is a BIG but, it is a runtime requirement that is not in line with the covariance support in C# 4.

For instance, this is legal in C# 4:


As far as the compiler is concerned this is fine, and it builds and runs, but when you try to invoke the multicast delegate you will get a runtime exception warning you that the delegates must be of the same type..

Things I didn’t know about expando objects

I found out two interesting things about the ExpandoObject class introduced in C# 4 this bank holiday weekend:

1. you can specify custom events on them

2. it implements the INotifyPropertyChanged interface

Here are some quick demos to show you how to use these features:

Custom Events

To add a custom event is the same as adding a new property:

   1: // event handler

   2: expando.MyEvent = null;

   3: expando.MyEvent += new EventHandler((s, e) => Console.WriteLine("MyEvent fired"));


   5: expando.MyEvent(expando, new EventArgs());

Generic event handlers will work too:

   1: // generic event handler

   2: expando.MyGenericEvent = null;

   3: expando.MyGenericEvent += new EventHandler<MyEventArgs>((s, e) => Console.WriteLine(e.Message));


   5: expando.MyGenericEvent(expando, new MyEventArgs("Generic event fired"));

Because we’ve initialize the events with null, we’ll get a runtime exception if we try to invoke the event before it’s subscribed to (which is the same as normal custom events). So instead, we can use the same pattern I mentioned here, and initialize the custom events with an event handler that does nothing:

   1: expando.MyOtherEvent = new EventHandler((s, e) => { });


   3: // now you don't have to check if MyOtherEvent is null before invoking it

   4: expando.MyOtherEvent(expando, new EventArgs());


You should be familiar with the INotifyPropertyChanged interface already as it’s pretty damn important when it comes to data-binding in UI technologies such as WPF and Silverlight. So having a dynamic object you can easily bind with can help save you plenty of time and effort as anyone who’s ever had to write code to implement the interface will tell you!

   1: dynamic expando = new ExpandoObject();


   3: (expando as INotifyPropertyChanged).PropertyChanged += 

   4:     new PropertyChangedEventHandler(

   5:         (s, e) => Console.WriteLine("[{0}] was changed", e.PropertyName));


   7: // event fired

   8: expando.MyProperty = "hello";


  10: // event fired

  11: expando.MyProperty = "world";


  13: // event fired

  14: (expando as IDictionary<string, object>).Remove("MyProperty");

As you can see from the code snippet above, the PropertyChanged event is fired whenever a property is added, removed or changed.

It’s also worth noting that there is another dynamic class that was introduced alongside the ExpandoObject – the DynamicObject class, which offers you more granular control of what happens when someone tries to access/update a dynamically defined property or method.

Whilst the DynamicObject class doesn’t implement the INotifiyPropertyChanged interface itself,it is possible for you to extend it to implement the interface yourself, as described by this MSDN magazine article.

Turn ExpandoObject into static type

As many others have shown, the new ExpandoObject introduced in C# 4 can be pretty useful in some scenarios.

However, on the odd occasion when you want to convert an ExpandoObject to a static type you have defined you can be forgiven for feeling a little lost as there are no well documented ways to do that. At least that’s how I felt, until I found out about the ConvertToType methods on the JavaScriptSerializer!


The JavaScriptSerializer, like the DataContractJsonSerializer class, lets you serialize and deserialize objects to and from JSON string. But unlike the DataContractJsonSerializer class, you are not confined to working with types that are marked with the DataContract attribute.

One of the deserialization methods on the JavaScriptSerializer class – DeserializeObject – lets you a JSON string to an object graph, i.e. a Dictionary<string, object> object where the key is the name of the property and the value is the property value. And you can use one of the overloaded ConvertToType methods to convert this dictionary to a static type of your choice, provided that the type has a parameterless constructor (which unfortunately, means you won’t be able to convert an ExpandoObject to an anonymous type).

ExpandoObject as IDictionary<string, object>

Why is this important? It’s because the ExpandoObject implements the IDictionary<string, object> interface and therefore can be used with the ConvertToType methods!

Here’s what you do:

   1: // first you need to instantiate the serializer

   2: var jsSerializer = new JavaScriptSerializer();


   4: // get an expando object and convert it to an instance of MyClass

   5: var expando = GetExpandoObject();

   6: var obj = jsSerializer.ConvertToType<MyClass>(expando);


   8: Console.WriteLine(obj.Id);      // 0db9d9a6-8c7e-4bea-82a8-4d5641c7c0de

   9: Console.WriteLine(obj.Name);    // Yan

  10: Console.WriteLine(obj.Age);     // 29


  12: ...


  14: public ExpandoObject GetExpandoObject()

  15: {

  16:     dynamic expando = new ExpandoObject();

  17:     expando.Id = Guid.NewGuid();

  18:     expando.Name = "Yan";

  19:     expando.Age = 29;


  21:     return expando;

  22: }


  24: public class MyClass

  25: {

  26:     public Guid Id { get; set; }


  28:     public string Name { get; set; }


  30:     public int Age { get; set; }

  31: }

Pretty cool, eh? ;-)

But what if the shape of the expando object doesn’t match your type? E.g. there are properties defined on MyClass but not on the expando object, or vice versa, or both? Well, it’s smart enough to work that out itself and only set the properties which it is able to set:

   1: // same as before


   3: Console.WriteLine(obj.Id);          // 0db9d9a6-8c7e-4bea-82a8-4d5641c7c0de

   4: Console.WriteLine(obj.Name);        // null

   5: Console.WriteLine(obj.Age);         // 29

   6: Console.WriteLine(obj.NickName);    // null


   8: ...


  10: public ExpandoObject GetExpandoObject()

  11: {

  12:     dynamic expando = new ExpandoObject();

  13:     expando.Id = Guid.NewGuid();

  14:     expando.Name = "Yan";

  15:     expando.Age = 29;

  16:     expando.Wife = "Yinan";    // not defined on MyClass


  18:     return expando;

  19: }


  21: public class MyClass

  22: {

  23:     public Guid Id { get; set; }


  25:     public string Name { get; private set; } // non-public setter


  27:     public int Age { get; set; }


  29:     public string NickName { get; set; } // not defined on ExpandoObject

  30: }

IDictionary<string, object> to ExpandoObject extension method

As you know, the ExpandoObject class implements the IDictionary<string, object> interface, so if you have an ExpandoObject you can easily cast it to an IDictionary<string, object> but there’s no built-in way to easily do the reverse.

Luckily, I came across a very useful extension method today which converts an IDictionary<string, object> into an ExpandoObject, which you can then use dynamically in your code, sweet! :-)

With some small modifications, here’s the code I ended up with, with some comments thrown in for good measures:

   1: /// <summary>

   2: /// Extension method that turns a dictionary of string and object to an ExpandoObject

   3: /// </summary>

   4: public static ExpandoObject ToExpando(this IDictionary<string, object> dictionary)

   5: {

   6:     var expando = new ExpandoObject();

   7:     var expandoDic = (IDictionary<string, object>)expando;


   9:     // go through the items in the dictionary and copy over the key value pairs)

  10:     foreach (var kvp in dictionary)

  11:     {

  12:         // if the value can also be turned into an ExpandoObject, then do it!

  13:         if (kvp.Value is IDictionary<string, object>)

  14:         {

  15:             var expandoValue = ((IDictionary<string, object>)kvp.Value).ToExpando();

  16:             expandoDic.Add(kvp.Key, expandoValue);

  17:         }

  18:         else if (kvp.Value is ICollection)

  19:         {

  20:             // iterate through the collection and convert any strin-object dictionaries

  21:             // along the way into expando objects

  22:             var itemList = new List<object>();

  23:             foreach (var item in (ICollection)kvp.Value)

  24:             {

  25:                 if (item is IDictionary<string, object>)

  26:                 {

  27:                     var expandoItem = ((IDictionary<string, object>) item).ToExpando();

  28:                     itemList.Add(expandoItem);

  29:                 }

  30:                 else

  31:                 {

  32:                     itemList.Add(item);

  33:                 }

  34:             }


  36:             expandoDic.Add(kvp.Key, itemList);

  37:         }

  38:         else

  39:         {

  40:             expandoDic.Add(kvp);

  41:         }

  42:     }


  44:     return expando;

  45: }