A permutation is an ordered arrangement of objects. For example, 3124 is one possible permutation of the digits 1, 2, 3 and 4. If all of the permutations are listed numerically or alphabetically, we call it lexicographic order. The lexicographic permutations of 0, 1 and 2 are:
012 021 102 120 201 210
What is the millionth lexicographic permutation of the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9?
let rec distribute e = function |  -> [[e]] | x::xs' as xs -> (e::xs)::[for xs in distribute e xs' -> x::xs] let rec permute = function |  -> [] | e::xs -> List.collect (distribute e) (permute xs) let getLexicographic (list:bigint list) = list |> permute |> List.map (fun l -> l |> List.rev |> List.mapi (fun i e -> e * pown 10I i) |> List.sum) |> List.sort let answer = List.nth (getLexicographic [0I..9I]) (1000000-1)
I borrowed the first two functions which are responsible for generating all the permutations of a given list here. From there, I wrote the getLexicographic function which takes an int list, generates all permutations of the numbers in the list, and for each permutation work out its numeric value, i.e.
[0; 1; 2] –> [2; 1; 0] –> 2 * (10 POW 0) + 1 * (10 POW 1) + 0 * (10 POW 2) –> 2 + 10 + 0 –> 12
and then returns the sorted numeric values as a list.
To get to the answer, I simply return the millionth element in the list.
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