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#### Problem

Consider quadratic Diophantine equations of the form:

x^{2}– Dy^{2}= 1

For example, when D=13, the minimal solution in x is 649^{2}– 13×180^{2}= 1.

It can be assumed that there are no solutions in positive integers when D is square.

By finding minimal solutions in x for D = {2, 3, 5, 6, 7}, we obtain the following:

3^{2}– 2×2^{2}= 1

2^{2}– 3×1^{2}= 1

9^{2}– 5×4^{2}= 1

5^{2}– 6×2^{2}= 1

8^{2}– 7×3^{2}= 1

Hence, by considering minimal solutions in x for D <= 7, the largest x is obtained when D=5.

Find the value of D <= 1000 in minimal solutions of x for which the largest value of x is obtained.

#### Solution

// define function to get the continued fractions, a0,a1,a2,...an let continuedFraction D = // define functions for working out the nth term of P, Q and a sequence let getPn an' qn' pn' = an' * qn' - pn' let getQn D pn qn' = (D - pown pn 2) / qn' let getAn a0 pn qn = (a0 + pn) / qn // work out the initial terms let a0 = bigint(sqrt(double(D))) let p1, q1 = a0, D-a0*a0 let a1 = getAn a0 p1 q1 let initial = (p1, q1, a1) Seq.unfold (fun (pn', qn', an') -> let pn = getPn an' qn' pn' let qn = getQn D pn qn' let an = getAn a0 pn qn Some((pn', qn', an'), (pn, qn, an))) initial |> Seq.map (fun (pn, qn, an) -> an) |> Seq.append [a0] // define function to get the continued fraction convergents // e.g. for D = 7: 2/1, 3/1, 5/2, 8/3, ... let continuedFractionConvergents D = let getN an n' n'' = an * n' + n'' // work out the initial terms let fractions = continuedFraction D let a0 = Seq.head fractions let p0, p1 = a0, a0 * (Seq.nth 1 fractions) + 1I let q0, q1 = 1I, Seq.nth 1 fractions let initial = (p1, q1, p0, q0) Seq.scan (fun (pn', qn', pn'', qn'') an -> let pn = getN an pn' pn'' let qn = getN an qn' qn'' (pn, qn, pn', qn')) initial (fractions |> Seq.skip 2) |> Seq.map (fun (pn, qn, pn', qn') -> (pn, qn)) |> Seq.append [(p0, q0)] let answer = [1I..1000I] |> List.filter (fun d -> sqrt(double(d)) % 1.0 <> 0.0) |> List.maxBy (fun d -> continuedFractionConvergents d |> Seq.filter (fun (x, y) -> x*x - d*y*y = 1I) |> Seq.map fst |> Seq.head)

After spending much time reading the information on Pell’s equation on mathworld and wikipedia, it turns out that the best way to solve the equation for a given D is to work out the continued fraction convergents to the square root of D.

For example, for D = 7, the equation becomes:

The fundamental solution (the first pair of *x*, *y* which satisfies the equation) can be obtained by going through the sequence of convergents for the square root of 7:

So how do we workout the values of the convergents? The continued fraction for a number is usually written as

The first ten values generated by the continued fraction for the square root of 2 are:

1, 3/2, 7/5, 17/12, 41/29, 99/70, 239/169, 577/408, 1393/985, 3363/2378, …

These values are called continued fraction convergents, getting closer to the true value of square root 2 with each step..

So, to find the convergents to the square root of D, we first need to find the values of *a*:

Once we have the sequence of values for a, we can then find out the convergent values:

The rest is simple, for each value of D between 1 and 1000, go through the convergents to find the fundamental solution and return the max value of x in all the fundamental solutions.

Hi, I’m **Yan**. I’m an **AWS Serverless Hero** and the author of **Production-Ready Serverless**.

I specialise in rapidly transitioning teams to serverless and building production-ready services on AWS.

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Further reading

Here is a complete list of all my posts on serverless and AWS Lambda. In the meantime, here are a few of my most popular blog posts.

- Lambda optimization tip – enable HTTP keep-alive
- You are wrong about serverless and vendor lock-in
- You are thinking about serverless costs all wrong
- Just how expensive is the full AWS SDK?
- Many faced threats to Serverless security
- We can do better than percentile latencies
- Yubl’s road to Serverless
- AWS Lambda – should you have few monolithic functions or many single-purposed functions?
- AWS Lambda – compare coldstart time with different languages, memory and code sizes
- Guys, we’re doing pagination wrong
- Top 10 Serverless framework best practices