Check out my new course Learn you some Lambda best practice for great good! and learn the best practices for performance, cost, security, resilience, observability and scalability.
When working with AWS Lambda, one of the things to keep in mind is that there’s a per region limit of 75GB total size for all deployment packages. Whilst that sounds a lot at first glance, our small team of server engineers managed to rack up nearly 20GB of deployment packages in just over 3 months!
Whilst we have been mindful of deployment package size (because it affects cold start time) and heavily using Serverless‘s built-in mechanism to exclude npm packages that are not used by each of the functions, the simple fact that deployment is simple and fast means we’re doing A LOT OF DEPLOYMENTS.
Individually, most of our functions are sub-2MB, but many functions are deployed so often that in some cases there are more than 300 deployed versions! This is down to how the Serverless framework deploy functions – by publishing a new version each time. On its own, it’s not a problem, but unless you clean up the old deployment packages you’ll eventually run into the 75GB limit.
Taking a leaf out of Netflix’s book, we wrote a Lambda function which finds and deletes old versions of your functions that are not referenced by an alias – remember, Serverless uses aliases to implement the concept of stages in Lambda, so not being referenced by an alias essentially equates to an orphaned version.
At the time of writing, we have just over 100 Lambda functions in our development environment and around 50 running in production. After deploying the janitor-lambda function, we have cut the code storage size down to 1.1GB, which include only the current version of deployments for all our stages (we have 4 non-prod stages in this account).
sidebar: if you’d like to hear more about our experience with Lambda thus far and what we have been doing, then check out the slides from my talk on the matter, I’d be happy to write them up in more details too when I have more free time.
Without further ado, here’s the bulk of our janitor function:
Since AWS Lambda throttles you on the no. of APIs calls per minute, we had to store the list of functions in the functions variable so that it carries over multiple invocations.
When we hit the (almost) inevitable throttle exception, the current invocation will end, and any functions that haven’t been completely cleaned will be cleaned the next time the function is invoked.
Another thing to keep in mind is that, when using a CloudWatch Event as the source of your function, Amazon will retry your function up to 2 more times on failure. In this case, if the function is retried straight away, it’ll just get throttled again. Hence why in the handler we log and swallow any exceptions:
I hope you have found this post useful, let me know in the comments if you have any Lambda/Serverless related questions.
I specialise in rapidly transitioning teams to serverless and building production-ready services on AWS.
Are you struggling with serverless or need guidance on best practices? Do you want someone to review your architecture and help you avoid costly mistakes down the line? Whatever the case, I’m here to help.
Check out my new podcast Real-World Serverless where I talk with engineers who are building amazing things with serverless technologies and discuss the real-world use cases and challenges they face. If you’re interested in what people are actually doing with serverless and what it’s really like to be working with serverless day-to-day, then this is the podcast for you.
Check out my new course, Learn you some Lambda best practice for great good! In this course, you will learn best practices for working with AWS Lambda in terms of performance, cost, security, scalability, resilience and observability. We will also cover latest features from re:Invent 2019 such as Provisioned Concurrency and Lambda Destinations. Enrol now and start learning!
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Here is a complete list of all my posts on serverless and AWS Lambda. In the meantime, here are a few of my most popular blog posts.
- Lambda optimization tip – enable HTTP keep-alive
- You are wrong about serverless and vendor lock-in
- You are thinking about serverless costs all wrong
- Just how expensive is the full AWS SDK?
- Many faced threats to Serverless security
- We can do better than percentile latencies
- Yubl’s road to Serverless
- AWS Lambda – should you have few monolithic functions or many single-purposed functions?
- AWS Lambda – compare coldstart time with different languages, memory and code sizes
- Guys, we’re doing pagination wrong
- Top 10 Serverless framework best practices