Enumerable.Except returns distinct items

You can become a serverless blackbelt. Enrol to my 4-week online workshop Production-Ready Serverless and gain hands-on experience building something from scratch using serverless technologies. At the end of the workshop, you should have a broader view of the challenges you will face as your serverless architecture matures and expands. You should also have a firm grasp on when serverless is a good fit for your system as well as common pitfalls you need to avoid. Sign up now and get 15% discount with the code yanprs15!

This one took me by surprise a little but there’s something about the Enumerable.Except method which you ought to know about. At first you might have assumed (as I did) that given an array as the base set and calling the Except extension method with a second array will return all the items in the first array which do not appear in the second array.

Well, not exactly, for instance:

var list1 = new[] { 1, 1, 1, 1 };
var list2 = Enumerable.Empty<int>();

var result = list1.Except(list2); // returns { 1 } instead of the expected { 1, 1, 1, 1 }

var list3 = new[] { 1, 1, 2, 2, 3 };
var list4 = new[] { 1 };

var result2 = list3.Except(list4); // returns { 2, 3 } instead of the expected { 2, 2, 3 }

Does it surprise you that only distance instances of the original array is returned by the Except method? Whilst I haven’t found any official Microsoft documentation/article on why Except behaves in this way, the best explanation I have heard so far is that Except performs a set operation, according to MSDN:

Produces the set difference of two sequences by using the default equality comparer to compare values.

And a Set in the mathematical sense is defined as:

A set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right

Liked this article? Support me on Patreon and get direct help from me via a private Slack channel or 1-2-1 mentoring.
Subscribe to my newsletter


Hi, I’m Yan. I’m an AWS Serverless Hero and I help companies go faster for less by adopting serverless technologies successfully.

Are you struggling with serverless or need guidance on best practices? Do you want someone to review your architecture and help you avoid costly mistakes down the line? Whatever the case, I’m here to help.

Hire me.


Skill up your serverless game with this hands-on workshop.

My 4-week Production-Ready Serverless online workshop is back!

This course takes you through building a production-ready serverless web application from testing, deployment, security, all the way through to observability. The motivation for this course is to give you hands-on experience building something with serverless technologies while giving you a broader view of the challenges you will face as the architecture matures and expands.

We will start at the basics and give you a firm introduction to Lambda and all the relevant concepts and service features (including the latest announcements in 2020). And then gradually ramping up and cover a wide array of topics such as API security, testing strategies, CI/CD, secret management, and operational best practices for monitoring and troubleshooting.

If you enrol now you can also get 15% OFF with the promo code “yanprs15”.

Enrol now and SAVE 15%.


Check out my new podcast Real-World Serverless where I talk with engineers who are building amazing things with serverless technologies and discuss the real-world use cases and challenges they face. If you’re interested in what people are actually doing with serverless and what it’s really like to be working with serverless day-to-day, then this is the podcast for you.


Check out my new course, Learn you some Lambda best practice for great good! In this course, you will learn best practices for working with AWS Lambda in terms of performance, cost, security, scalability, resilience and observability. We will also cover latest features from re:Invent 2019 such as Provisioned Concurrency and Lambda Destinations. Enrol now and start learning!


Check out my video course, Complete Guide to AWS Step Functions. In this course, we’ll cover everything you need to know to use AWS Step Functions service effectively. There is something for everyone from beginners to more advanced users looking for design patterns and best practices. Enrol now and start learning!