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As Lambda adds nodejs 6.10 to its supported platforms I wondered if there’s any performance differences between the platforms. Thankfully the templates in the Serverless framework make it a relative breeze to test it out with a simple HelloWorld function.
see the test code here.
I created a simple Lambda function for each platform that will respond to an API Gateway event and return “hello”. This is the nodejs version.
I decided to use API Gateway as the trigger as it allows me to invoke the function and apply a constant load using standard load testing tools for HTTP. I chose Artillery because you can get going with minimal fuzz and I had used it before.
For each platform, I ran a test with 10 virtual users sending 1 request per second (ie. a total of 10 req/s) for an hour.
artillery quick —duration 3600 —rate 10 –n 1 http://my.lambda.backed.api/
Since we’re interested in the performance characteristics of the different Lambda platforms, we’ll only be looking at the function Duration metric, and we’ll ignore the initial cold start times.
Observation 1 – C# is slower?
Unsurprisingly the invocation duration is fairly consistent across the functions, although C# is sticking out like a sore thumb.
Take this 10 mins window for instance – where there were no spikes that looked like cold starts – the C# platform is consistently higher than the rest.
Observation 2 – Java has very consistent performance
If you look at the max duration for the same 10 mins window – for whatever reason, I didn’t get any percentile metrics from CloudWatch for the entire duration of the test so had to settle for max instead – the Java platform was both lower and had less variance, by some distance.
If you compare the average and max duration for the Java platform over a longer time window, you’ll also see that there’s very little difference between the two (if you ignore the spike at 01:38 which might be down to GC pause as opposed to cold start) which suggests the performance of the Java platform is very consistent.
Observation 3 – static languages has more consistent performance?
Following on from the previous observation, it seems that both C# and Java shows less variance when it comes to max duration, so perhaps it’s because both are compiled languages?
Observation 4 – Java packages are big…
One of the benefits with using nodejs and Python to write Lambda functions is that they produce much smaller packages, which we know translates to lower code start time. Now, the fault might lie with the Serverless template for aws-java-maven, but my HelloWorld Java example produces a whooping 2MB package, which is orders of magnitude bigger than the nodejs and Python functions. I expected it to be bigger than nodejs, but perhaps closer to the size of the C# package.
Take these results with a pinch of salt. Things are evolving at an incredible pace and whatever performance discrepancies we’re seeing today can change quickly as AWS improves all the platforms behind the scenes.
Even as I observe that the C# platform appears to be slower in this test, we’re talking about sub-millisecond difference for a HelloWorld example, hardly representative of a real world application. The DotNetCore platform itself (which C# Lambda functions run on) is also evolving quickly, and any future performance improvements in that underlying platform will be transferred to you at no cost, so don’t let this post dissuade you from writing Lambda functions in C#.
Hi, I’m Yan. I’m an AWS Serverless Hero and I help companies go faster for less by adopting serverless technologies successfully.
Are you struggling with serverless or need guidance on best practices? Do you want someone to review your architecture and help you avoid costly mistakes down the line? Whatever the case, I’m here to help.
Skill up your serverless game with this hands-on workshop.
My 4-week Production-Ready Serverless online workshop is back!
This course takes you through building a production-ready serverless web application from testing, deployment, security, all the way through to observability. The motivation for this course is to give you hands-on experience building something with serverless technologies while giving you a broader view of the challenges you will face as the architecture matures and expands.
We will start at the basics and give you a firm introduction to Lambda and all the relevant concepts and service features (including the latest announcements in 2020). And then gradually ramping up and cover a wide array of topics such as API security, testing strategies, CI/CD, secret management, and operational best practices for monitoring and troubleshooting.
If you enrol now you can also get 15% OFF with the promo code “yanprs15”.
Check out my new podcast Real-World Serverless where I talk with engineers who are building amazing things with serverless technologies and discuss the real-world use cases and challenges they face. If you’re interested in what people are actually doing with serverless and what it’s really like to be working with serverless day-to-day, then this is the podcast for you.
Check out my new course, Learn you some Lambda best practice for great good! In this course, you will learn best practices for working with AWS Lambda in terms of performance, cost, security, scalability, resilience and observability. We will also cover latest features from re:Invent 2019 such as Provisioned Concurrency and Lambda Destinations. Enrol now and start learning!
Check out my video course, Complete Guide to AWS Step Functions. In this course, we’ll cover everything you need to know to use AWS Step Functions service effectively. There is something for everyone from beginners to more advanced users looking for design patterns and best practices. Enrol now and start learning!
Here is a complete list of all my posts on serverless and AWS Lambda. In the meantime, here are a few of my most popular blog posts.
- All you need to know about caching for serverless applications
- Lambda optimization tip – enable HTTP keep-alive
- You are wrong about serverless and vendor lock-in
- You are thinking about serverless costs all wrong
- Just how expensive is the full AWS SDK?
- Check-list for going live with API Gateway and Lambda
- How to choose the right API Gateway auth method
- CloudFormation protip: use !Sub instead of !Join
- AWS Lambda – should you have few monolithic functions or many single-purposed functions?
- Guys, we’re doing pagination wrong
- Top 10 Serverless framework best practices
- How to break the “senior engineer” career ceiling
- My advice to junior developers